Linux ·

MySQL 5.7 使用 SSL加密连接实例

1. 背景
  * 在生产环境下,安全总是无法忽视的问题,数据库安全则是重中之重,因为所有的数据都存放在数据库中
  * 当使用非加密方式连接MySQL数据库时,在网络中传输的所有信息都是明文的,可以被网络中所有人截取,敏感信息可能被泄露。在传送敏感信息(如密码)时,可以采用SSL连接的方式。
    *  版本小于5.7.6时按照 MySQL 5.6 SSL配置的方式进行 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-07/145338.htm

2. MySQL 连接方式
  * socket连接
  * TCP非SSL连接
  * SSL安全连接
        * SSL + 密码连接 [version > MySQL 5.7.5]
    * SSL + 密码 + 密钥连接

3. SSL 简介
  * SSL指的是SSL/TLS,其是一种为了在计算机网络进行安全通信的加密协议。假设用户的传输不是通过SSL的方式,那么其在网络中以明文的方式进行传输,而这给别有用心的人带来了可乘之机。所以,现在很多网站其实默认已经开启了SSL功能,比如Facebook、Twtter、YouTube、淘宝等。

MySQL 5.7 使用 SSL加密连接实例 Linux 第1张

4. 环境 [ 关闭SeLinux ]
  * system 环境
[root@MySQL ~]# cat /etc/RedHat-release 
CentOS release 6.9 (Final)
[root@MySQL ~]# uname -r
 
2.6.32-696.3.2.el6.x86_64
 
[root@MySQL ~]# getenforce 
Disabled

  * MySQL 环境 [ MySQL 5.7安装前面篇章已做详细介绍 http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-07/145343.htm ]
        have_openssl 与 have_ssl 值都为DISABLED表示ssl未开启
[root@MySQL ~]# mysql -p'123'
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 6
Server version: 5.7.18 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
mysql> select version();
+-----------+
| version() |
+-----------+
| 5.7.18    |
+-----------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
 
mysql> show variables like 'have%ssl%';
+---------------+----------+
| Variable_name | Value    |
+---------------+----------+
| have_openssl  | DISABLED |
| have_ssl      | DISABLED |
+---------------+----------+
2 rows in set (0.02 sec)
 
mysql> show variables like 'port';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| port          | 3306  |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
 
mysql> show variables like 'datadir';
+---------------+-------------------+
| Variable_name | Value            |
+---------------+-------------------+
| datadir      | /data/mysql_data/ |
+---------------+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

5. SSL配置
  *  利用自带工具生成SSL相关文件
[root@MySQL ~]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup --datadir=/data/mysql_data
Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
..........................................................................+++
.....+++
writing new private key to 'ca-key.pem'
-----
Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
.......................................................................................................................................................................+++
...+++
writing new private key to 'server-key.pem'
-----
Generating a 2048 bit RSA private key
.....................+++
...........................................+++
writing new private key to 'client-key.pem'
-----

  * 查看生成的SSL文件
[root@MySQL ~]# ls -l /data/mysql_data/*.pem
-rw------- 1 root root 1679 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/ca-key.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1074 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/ca.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1078 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/client-cert.pem
-rw------- 1 root root 1675 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/client-key.pem
-rw------- 1 root root 1675 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/private_key.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  451 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/public_key.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1078 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/server-cert.pem
-rw------- 1 root root 1675 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/server-key.pem

  * 修改数据目录下生成的SSL文件所属用户与权限
[root@MySQL ~]# chown -v mysql.mysql /data/mysql_data/*.pem
changed ownership of /data/mysql_data/ca-key.pem' to mysql:mysql
changed ownership of
/data/mysql_data/ca.pem' to mysql:mysql
changed ownership of /data/mysql_data/client-cert.pem' to mysql:mysql
changed ownership of
/data/mysql_data/client-key.pem' to mysql:mysql
changed ownership of /data/mysql_data/private_key.pem' to mysql:mysql
changed ownership of
/data/mysql_data/public_key.pem' to mysql:mysql
changed ownership of /data/mysql_data/server-cert.pem' to mysql:mysql
changed ownership of
/data/mysql_data/server-key.pem' to mysql:mysql

  * 查看生成的SSL文件
[root@MySQL ~]# ls -l /data/mysql_data/*.pem
-rw------- 1 mysql mysql 1679 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/ca-key.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 1074 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/ca.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 1078 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/client-cert.pem
-rw------- 1 mysql mysql 1675 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/client-key.pem
-rw------- 1 mysql mysql 1675 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/private_key.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql  451 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/public_key.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 1078 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/server-cert.pem
-rw------- 1 mysql mysql 1675 Jun 24 20:54 /data/mysql_data/server-key.pem

  * 重启 MySQL 服务
[root@MySQL ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld restart
Shutting down MySQL.. SUCCESS! 
Starting MySQL. SUCCESS!

  * 连接MySQL 查看SSL开启状态
    have_openssl 与 have_ssl 值都为YES表示ssl开启成功
mysql> show variables like 'have%ssl%';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| have_openssl  | YES  |
| have_ssl      | YES  |
+---------------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.03 sec)

6. SSL + 密码连接测试
    * 创建用户并指定 SSL 连接 [ MySQL 5.7后推荐使用create user 方式创建用户 ]
mysql> create user 'ssl_test'@'%' identified by '123' require SSL;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

    * 通过密码连接测试 [ 默认采用SSL连接,需要指定不使用SSL连接 ]
[root@MySQL ~]# mysql -h 192.168.60.129 -ussl_test -p'123' --ssl=0
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'ssl_test'@'192.168.60.129' (using password: YES)

    * 通过 SSL + 密码 连接测试
      SSL: Cipher in use is DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA 表示通过SSL连接
[root@MySQL ~]# mysql -h 192.168.60.129 -ussl_test -p'123'  --ssl
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
WARNING: --ssl is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Use --ssl-mode instead.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 12
Server version: 5.7.18 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
mysql> \s
--------------
mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.7.18, for linux-glibc2.5 (x86_64) using  EditLine wrapper
 
Connection id:    12
Current database: 
Current user:      ssl_test@192.168.60.129
SSL:            Cipher in use is DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
Current pager:    stdout
Using outfile:    ''
Using delimiter:  ;
Server version:        5.7.18 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
Protocol version:  10
Connection:    192.168.60.129 via TCP/IP
Server characterset:  latin1
Db    characterset:  latin1
Client characterset:  utf8
Conn.  characterset:  utf8
TCP port:      3306
Uptime:        7 min 34 sec
 
Threads: 1  Questions: 29  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 112  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 105  Queries per second avg: 0.063
--------------

7. SSL + 密码 + 密钥连接

    * 创建用户并指定 X509 [ SSL+密钥 ] 连接 [ MySQL 5.7后推荐使用create user 方式创建用户 ]
mysql> create user 'X509_test'@'%' identified by '123' require X509;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

    * 通过密码连接测试
[root@MySQL ~]# mysql -h 192.168.60.129 -uX509_test -p'123' --ssl=0
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'X509_test'@'192.168.60.129' (using password: YES)

    * 通过 SSL +密码 连接测试
[root@MySQL ~]# mysql -h 192.168.60.129 -uX509_test -p'123' --ssl
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
ERROR 1045 (28000): Access denied for user 'X509_test'@'192.168.60.129' (using password: YES)

    * 通过 SSL + 密码+密钥连接测试
   SSL: Cipher in use is DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA 表示通过SSL连接
[root@MySQL ~]# mysql -h 192.168.60.129 -uX509_test -p'123' --ssl-cert=/data/mysql_data/client-cert.pem --ssl-key=/data/mysql_data/client-key.pem 
mysql: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 21
Server version: 5.7.18 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
 
Copyright (c) 2000, 2017, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
 
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
 
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
 
mysql> \s
--------------
mysql  Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.7.18, for linux-glibc2.5 (x86_64) using  EditLine wrapper
 
Connection id:    21
Current database: 
Current user:      X509_test@192.168.60.129
SSL:            Cipher in use is DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
Current pager:    stdout
Using outfile:    ''
Using delimiter:  ;
Server version:        5.7.18 MySQL Community Server (GPL)
Protocol version:  10
Connection:    192.168.60.129 via TCP/IP
Server characterset:  latin1
Db    characterset:  latin1
Client characterset:  utf8
Conn.  characterset:  utf8
TCP port:      3306
Uptime:        18 min 27 sec
 
Threads: 1  Questions: 40  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 118  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 111  Queries per second avg: 0.036
--------------

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